Music has the potential to evoke powerful emotions, both positive and negative. When listening to an enjoyable piece or song, an individual can experience intense, pleasurable “chills” that signify a surge of dopamine and activations in certain regions in the brain, such as the ventral striatum1 (see Fig. 1). Conversely, regions of the brain associated with negative emotions, for instance the parahippocampal gyrus, can activate during the presentation of music without harmony or a distinct rhythmic pattern2. Prior research has shown that the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in the ventral striatum specifically activates during reward processing3, even if the stimulus does not present a tangible benefit, such as that from food, sex, or drugs4-6.
Figure 1: A cross-section of the human brain detailing (left) the ventral striatum, which houses the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and (right) the parahippocampal gyrus.
Even subtle changes in acoustic (sound) stimuli can affect experiences positively or negatively. In terms of concert hall design, the acoustical characteristics of a room, such as reverberance, the lingering of sound in the space, contribute significantly to an individual’s perception of music, and in turn influences room acoustics preference7-8. As with the case for music, different regions of the brain should activate depending on how pleasing the stimulus is to the listener. For instance, a reverberant stimulus may evoke a positive emotional response in listeners that appreciate reverberant rooms (e.g. a concert hall), while negative emotional regions may be activated for those that prefer drier rooms (e.g. a conference room). The identification of which regions in the brain are activated due to changes in reverberance will provide insight for future research to investigate other acoustic attributes that contribute to preference, such as the sense of envelopment.
The acoustic stimuli presented to the participants ranged in levels of perceived reverberance from anechoic to very reverberant conditions, e.g. a large cathedral. Example stimuli, which are similar to those used in the study, can be heard using the links below. As you listen to the excerpts, pay attention to how the characteristics of the sound changes even though the classical piece remains the same.
Example Reverberant Stimuli:
The set of stimuli with varying levels of reverberation were created by convolving an anechoic recording of a classical excerpt with a synthesized impulse response (IR) that represented the IR of a concert hall. The synthesized IR was double-sloped (see Fig. 2a) such that early part of the response was consistent between the different conditions, but the late reverberation differed. As shown in Fig. 2b the late parts of the IR vary greatly, while the first 100 milliseconds overlap. The reverberation times (RT) of the stimuli varied from 0 to 5.33 seconds
Figure 2: Impulse responses for the four synthesized conditions: (a) the total impulse response, (b) Time scale from 0 to 1 seconds to highlight the early part of the IR.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to locate the regions of the brain that were activated by the stimuli. In order to find these regions, the images obtained due to the musical stimuli are each compared with the activations resulting due to control stimuli, which for this study were noise stimuli. Examples of control stimuli that are matched to the musical ones provided earlier can be heard using the links below. The noise stimuli were matched to have the same rhythm and frequency content for each reverberant condition.
Example Noise Stimuli:
Short Medium Long
A total of 10 stimuli were used in the experiment: five acoustic stimuli and five corresponding noise stimuli, and each stimulus was presented eight times. Each stimulus presentation lasted for 16 seconds. After each presentation, the participant was given 10 seconds to rate the stimulus in terms of preference on a five-point scale, where -2 was equal to “Strongly Dislike,” 0 was “Neither Like Nor Dislike,” and +2 was “Strongly Like.”
The following data represent the results of one participant averaged over the total number of repeated stimuli presentations. The average preference ratings for the five musical stimuli are shown in Fig. 3. While the majority of the ratings were not statistically different, the general trend is that the preference ratings were higher for the stimuli with the 1-2 second RTs and lowest for the excessively long RT of 5.33 seconds. These results are consistent with a pilot study that was run with seven subjects, and in particular, the stimulus with the 1.44 second RT was found to have the highest preference rating.
Figure 3: Average preference ratings for the five acoustic stimuli.
The fMRI results were found to be in agreement for the highest rated stimulus with an RT of 1.44 seconds. Brain activations were found in regions shown to be associated with positive emotions and reward processing: the right ventral striatum (p<0.001) (Fig. 4a) and the left and right amygdala (p<0.001) (Fig. 4b). No significant activation were found in regions shown to be associated with negative emotions for this stimulus, which supports the original hypothesis. In contrast, a preliminary analysis of a second participant’s results possibly indicates that activations occurred in areas linked to negative emotions for the lowest-rated stimulus, which is the one with the longest reverberation time of 5.33 seconds.
Figure 4: Acoustic Stimulus > Noise Stimulus (p<0.001) for RT = 1.44 s showing activation in the (a) right ventral striatum, and (b) the left and right amygdala.
A first-level analysis of one participant exhibited promising results that support the hypothesis, which is that a stimulus with a high preference rating will lead to activation of regions of the brain associated with reward (in this case, the ventral striatum and the amygdala). Further study of additional participants will aid in the identification of the neural mechanism engaged in the emotional response to stimuli of varying reverberance.
1. Blood, AJ and Zatorre, RJ Intensely pleasurable responses to music correlate with activity in brain regions implicated in reward and emotion. PNAS. 2001, Vol. 98, 20, pp. 11818-11823.
2. Blood, AJ, et al. Emotional responses to pleasant and unpleasant music correlate with activity in paralimbic brain regions. Nature Neuroscience. 1999, Vol. 2, 4, pp. 382-387.
3. Schott, BH, et al. Mesolimbic functional magnetic resonance imaging activations during reward anticipation correlate with reward-related ventral striatal dopamine release. Journal of Neuroscience. 2008, Vol. 28, 52, pp. 14311-14319.
4. Menon, V and Levitin, DJ. The rewareds of music listening: Response and physiological connectivity of the mesolimbic system. NeuroImage. 2005, Vol. 28, pp. 175-184.
5. Salimpoor, VN., et al. Anatomically distinct dopamine release during anticipation and experience of peak emotion to music. Nature Neuroscience. 2011, Vol. 14, 2, pp. 257-U355.
6. Salimpoor, VN., et al. Interactions between the nucleus accumbens and auditory cortices predict music reward value. Science. 2013, Vol. 340, pp. 216-219.
7. Beranek, L. Concert hall acoustics. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 1992, Vol. 92, 1, pp. 1-39.
8. Schroeder, MR, Gottlob, D and Siebrasse, KF. Comparative sutdy of European concert halls: correlation of subjective preference with geometric and acoustic parameters. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 1974, Vol. 56, 4, pp. 1195-1201.
Introduction: Auditory illusions
The ear can be tricked by ambiguous sounds, just as the eye can be fooled by optical illusions. Sound reflection, whisper galleries, reverberation, ricochets, and interference patterns were perceived in the past as eerie sounds attributed to invisible echo spirits, thunder gods, ghosts, and sound-absorbing bodies. These beliefs in the supernatural were recorded in ancient myths, and expressed in tangible archaeological evidence as canyon petroglyphs, cave paintings, and megalithic stone circles including Stonehenge. Controlled experiments demonstrate that certain ambiguous sounds cause blindfolded listeners to believe in the presence of phantom objects.
Figure 1. This prehistoric pictograph of a ghostly figure in Utah’s Horseshoe Canyon will answer you back.
1. Echoes = Answers from Echo Spirits (relevant to canyon petroglyphs)
Voices coming out of solid rock gave our ancestors the impression of echo spirits calling out from the rocks. Just as light reflection in a mirror gives an illusion of yourself duplicated as a virtual image, sound waves reflecting off a surface are mathematically identical to sound waves emanating from a virtual sound source behind a reflecting plane such as a large cliff face. This can result in an auditory illusion of somebody answering you from deep within the rock. It struck me that canyon petroglyphs might have been made in response to hearing echoes and believing that the echo spirits dwelt in rocky places. Ancient myths contain descriptions of echo spirits that match prehistoric petroglyphs, including witches that hide in sheep bellies and snakeskins. My acoustic measurements have shown that the artists chose to place their art precisely where they could hear the strongest echoes.
Listen to an echo at a rock art site in the Grand Canyon (click here).
Watch a video of an echoing rock art site in Utah
Figure 2. This figure on the Pecos River in Texas is painted in a shallow shelter with interesting acoustics.
2. Whisper Galleries = Disembodied Voices (relevant to parabolic shelters)
Just as light reflected in a concave mirror can focus to give a “real image” floating in front of the surface, a shallow rock shelter can focus sound waves like a parabolic dish. Sounds from unseen sources miles away can be focused to result in an auditory illusion of disembodied voices coming from thin air right next to you. Such rock shelters were often considered places of power, and were decorated with mysterious paintings. These shelters can also act like loud-speakers to broadcast sounds outward, such that listeners at great distances would wonder why they could not see who was making the sounds.
Figure 3. This stampede of hoofed animals is painted in a cave with thunderous reverberation in central India.
3. Reverberation = Thunder from Hoofed Animals (relevant to cave paintings)
Echoes of percussion noises can sound like hoof beats. Multiple echoes of a simple clap in a cavern blur together into thunderous reverberation, which mimics the sound of the thundering herds of stampeding hoofed animals painted in prehistoric caves. Ancient myths describe thunder as the hoof beats of supernatural gods. I realized that the reverberation in caves must have given the auditory illusion of being thunder, and thus inspired the cave paintings depicting that the same mythical hoofed thunder gods causing thunder in the sky also cause thunder in the underworld.
Listen to thunderous reverberation of a percussion sound in a prehistoric cave in France (click here).
4. Ricochets = “Boo-o-o!” (relevant to ghostly hauntings)
Can you hear the ricochet reminiscent of a ghostly “Boo” in this recording of a clap in a highly reverberant room?
Figure 4. A petroglyph of a flute player in an echoing location within Dinosaur National Monument.
5. Resonance = spritely music (relevant to cave and canyon paintings)
Listen to the difference between a flute being played in a non-echoing environment, then how haunting it sounds if played in a cave (click here);
it is as if spirit musicians are in accompaniment. (Thanks to Simon Wyatt for the flute music, to which half-way through I added cave acoustics via the magic of a convolution reverberation program.)
Figure 5. An interference pattern from two sound sources such as bagpipes can cause the auditory illusion that the silent zones are acoustic shadows from a megalithic stone circle, and vice versa.
6. Interference Patterns = Acoustic Shadows of a Ring of Pillars (relevant to Stonehenge and Pipers’ Stones)
Mysterious silent zones in an empty field can give the impression of a ring of large phantom objects casting acoustic shadows. Two sound sources, such as bagpipes playing the same tone, can produce an interference pattern. Zones of silence radiating outward occur where the high pressure of sound waves from one source cancel out the low pressure of sound waves from the other source. Blindfolded participants hearing an interference pattern in controlled experiments attributed the dead zones to the presence of acoustic obstructions in an arrangement reminiscent of Stonehenge.
These experimental results demonstrate that regions of low sound intensity due to destructive interference of sound waves from musical instruments can be misperceived as an auditory illusion of acoustic shadows cast by a ring of large rocks:
Figure 6. Drawing by participant C. Fuller after hearing interference pattern blindfolded, as envisioned from above (shown on left), and in perspective from ground level (shown on right).
I then visited the U.K. and made measurements of the actual acoustic shadows radiating out from Stonehenge and other megalithic stone circles, and demonstrated that the pattern of alternating loud and quiet zones recreates a dual source sound wave interference pattern. My theory that musical interference patterns served as blueprints for megalithic stone circles – many of which are named “Pipers’ Stones” — is supported by ancient legends that two magic pipers enticed maidens to dance in a circle and they all turned to stone.
Listen for yourself to the similarity between sound wave interference as I walk around two flutes in an empty field (click here), and acoustic shadows as I walk around a megalithic Pipers’ Stone circle (click here); both have similar modulations between loud and quiet. How would you have explained this if you couldn’t see what was “blocking” the sound?
Complex behaviors of sound such as reflection and interference (which scientists today explain by sound wave theory and dismiss as acoustical artifacts) can experimentally give rise to psychoacoustic misperceptions in which such unseen sonic phenomena are attributed to the invisible/supernatural. The significance of this research is that it can help explain the motivation for some of mankind’s most mysterious behaviors and greatest artistic achievements. There are several implications and applications of my research. It shows that acoustical phenomena were culturally significant to ancient peoples, leading to the immediate conclusion that the natural soundscapes of archaeological sites should be preserved in their natural state for further study and greater appreciation. It demonstrates that even today sensory input can be used to manipulate perception, and can give spooky illusions inconsistent with scientific reality, which could have interesting practical applications for virtual reality and special effects in entertainment media. A key point to learn from my research is that objectivity is questionable, since a given set of data can be used to support multiple conclusions. For example, an echo can be used as “proof” for either an echo spirit or sound wave reflection. Also, just based on their interpretation of sounds heard in an empty field, people can be made to believe there is a ring a huge rocks taller than themselves. The history of humanity is full of misinterpretations, such as the visual illusion that the sun propels itself across the sky above the flat earth. Sound, being invisible with complex properties, can lead to auditory illusions of the supernatural. This leads to the more general question, what other perceptional illusions are we currently living under due to other phenomena that we are currently misinterpreting?
See https://sites.google.com/site/rockartacoustics/ for further detail.
Auditory Illusions of Supernatural Spirits: Archaeological Evidence and Experimental Results
Steven J. Waller — firstname.lastname@example.org
Rock Art Acoustics
5415 Lake Murray Boulevard #8
La Mesa, CA 91942
Popular version of paper 4pAAa1
Presentation Thursday afternoon, October 30, 2014
Session: “Acoustic Trick-or-Treat: Eerie Noises, Spooky Speech, and Creative Masking”
168th Acoustical Society of America Meeting, Indianapolis, IN
The human voice is a pattern of sound generated by both the mind and body, and carries with it information about about a speaker’s mental and physical state. Qualities such as gender, age, physique, dialect, health, and emotion are often embedded in the voice, and can produce sounds that are comforting and pleasant, intense and urgent, sad and happy, and so on. The human voice can also project a sense of eeriness when the sound contains qualities that are human-like, but not necessarily typical of the speech that is heard on a daily basis. A person with an unusually large head and neck, for example, may produce highly intelligible speech, but it will be oddly dominated by low frequency sounds that belie the atypical size of the talker. Excessively slow or fast speaking rates, strangely-timed and irregular speech, as well as breathiness and tremor may all also contribute to an eeriness if produced outside the boundaries of typical speech.
The sound pattern of the human voice is produced by the respiratory system, the larynx, and the vocal tract. The larynx, located at the bottom of the throat, is comprised of a left and right vocal fold (often referred to as vocal cords) and a surrounding framework of cartilage and muscle. During breathing the vocal folds are spread far apart to allow for an easy flow of air to and from the lungs. To generate sound they are brought together firmly, allowing air pressure to build up below them. This forces the vocal folds into vibration, creating the sound waves that are the “raw material” to be formed into speech by the vocal tract. The length and mass of the vocal folds largely determine the vocal pitch and vocal quality. Small and light vocal folds will generally produce a high pitched sound, whereas low pitch typically originate with large, heavy vocal folds.
The vocal tract is the airspace created by the throat and the mouth whose shape at any instant of time depends on the positions of the tongue, jaw, lips, velum, and larynx. During speech it is a continuously changing tube-like structure that “sculpts” the raw sound produced by the vocal folds into a stream of vowels and consonants. The size and shape of the vocal tract imposes another layer of information about the talker. A long throat and large mouth may transmit the impression of a large body while more subtle characteristics like the contour of the roof of the mouth may add characteristics that are unique to the talker.
For this study, speech was simulated with a mathematical representation of the vocal folds and vocal tract. Such simulations allow for modifications of size and shape of structures, as well as temporal aspects of speech. The goal was to simulate extremes in vocal tract length, unusual timing patterns of speech movements, and odd combinations of breathiness and tremor. The result can be both eerie and amusing because the sounds produced are almost human, but not quite.
Three examples are included to demonstrate these effects. The first is set of seven simulations of the word “abracadabra” produced while gradually decreasing the vocal tract length from 22 cm to 6.6 cm, increasing the vocal pitch from very low to very high, and increasing the speaking rate from slow to fast. The longest and shortest vocal tracts are shown in Figure 1 and are both configured as “ah” vowels; for production of the entire word, the vocal tract shape continuously changes. The set of simulations can be heard in sound sample 1.
Although it may be tempting to assume that the changes present in sound sample 1 are similar to simply increasing the playback speed of the audio, the changes are based on physiological scaling of the vocal tract, vocal folds, as well as an increase in the speaking rate. Sound sample 2 contains the same seven simulations except that the speaking rate is exactly the same in each case, eliminating the sense of increased playback speed.
The third example demonstrates the effects of modifying the timing of the vowels and consonants within the word “abracadabra” while simultaneously adding a shaky or tremor-like quality, and an increased amount of breathiness. A series of six simulations can be heard in sound sample 3; the first three versions of the word are based on the structure of an unusually large male talker, whereas the second three are representative of an adult female talker.
This simulation model used for these demonstrations has been developed for purposes of studying and understanding human speech production and speech development. Using the model to investigate extreme cases of structure and unusual timing patterns is useful for better understanding the limits of human speech.
Figure 1 caption:
Unnaturally long and short tube-like representations of the human vocal tract. Each vocal tract is configured as an “ah” vowel (as in “hot”), but during speech the vocal tract continuously changes shape. Vocal tract lengths for typical adult male and adult female talkers are approximately 17.5 cm and 15 cm, respectively. Thus, the 22 cm long tract would be representative of a person with an unusually large head and neck, whereas the 6.6 cm vocal tract is even shorter than a typical infant.
Brad Story – email@example.com
Dept. of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences
University of Arizona
P.O. Box 210071
Tucson, AZ 85712
Popular version of paper 4pAAa10
Presented Thursday afternoon, October 30, 2014
168th ASA Meeting, Indianapolis