What Does Your Signature Sound Like?

Daichi Asakura – asakura@pa.info.mie-u.ac.jp
Mie University
Tsu, Mie, Japan

Popular version of poster, “Writer recognition with a sound in hand-writing”

172nd ASA Meeting, Honolulu

We can notice a car approaching by noise it makes on the road or can recognize a person by the sound of their footsteps. There are many studies analyzing and recognizing these noises. In the computer security industry, studies have even been proposed to estimate what is being typed from the sound of typing on the keyboard [1] and extracting RSA keys through noises made by a PC [2].

Of course, there is a relationship between a noise and its cause and that noise, therefore, contains information. The sound of a person writing, or “hand writing sound,” is one of the noises in our everyday environment. Previous studies have addressed the recognition of handwritten numeric characters by using the resulting sound, finding an average recognition of 88.4%. Based on this study, we seek the possibility of recognizing and identifying a writer by using the sound of their handwriting. If accurate identification is possible, it could become a method of signature verification without having to ever look at the signature.

We used the handwriting sounds of nine participants, conducting recognition experiments. We asked them to write the same text, which were names in Kanji, the Chinese characters, under several different conditions, such as writing slowly or writing on a different day. Figure 1 shows an example of a spectrogram of the hand-writing sound we analyzed. The bottom axis represents time and the vertical axis shows frequency. Colors represent the magnitude – or intensity – of the frequencies, where red indicates high intensity and blue is low.

The spectrogram showed features corresponding to the number of strokes in the Kanji. We used a recognition system based on a hidden Markov model (HMM) – typically used for speech recognition –, which represents transitions of spectral patterns as they evolve in time. The results showed an average identification rate of 66.3%, indicating that writer identification is possible in this manner. However, the identification rate decreased under certain conditions, especially a slow writing speed.

To improve performances, we need to increase the number of hand writing samples and include various written texts as well as participants. We also intend to include writing of English characters and numbers. We expect that Deep Learning, which is attracting increasing attention around the world, will also help us achieve a higher recognition rate in future experiments.

  1. Zhuang, L., Zhou, F., and Tygar, J. D., Keyboard Acoustic Emanations Revisited, ACM Transactions on Information and Systems Security, 2009, vol.13, no.1, article 3, pp.1-26.
  2. Genkin, D., Shamir, A., and Tromer, E., RSA Key Extraction via Low-Bandwidth Acoustic Cryptanalysis, Proceedings of CRYPTO 2014, 2014, pp.444-461.
  3. Kitano, S., Nishino, T. and Naruse, H., Handwritten digit recognition from writing sound using HMM, 2013, Technical Report of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, vol.113, no.346, pp.121-125.

 

 

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